The present situation, the competitiveness of China's auto p



First, the present situation of our auto parts exports
(a) primary data
It is not hard to see, in recent 15 years, China's auto parts export amount is sustained growth, particularly rapid growth since wto accession, at around 30% growth every year. At the same time, the auto parts export amount in full auto products export proportion is rising year by year, has reached more than 80% in 2005, is China's auto products are exported to the absolute main force.
(2) export direction and product type
From the point of export direction, the United States, Japan, the European Union and other developed countries and the car production country is the leading exporter of auto parts in China. At the same time, in the Middle East, South America, Africa and other emerging market development is also paying off. Build factories abroad, the phenomenon of acquisition of foreign enterprises have emerged, such as universal money-is-coming buying American GBC company (main supply universal joint).
In terms of export products, mainly labor-intensive, low technology content products, base, bumper, wiring harness, glass, brakes, clutch, the heat, the silencer, the product of the comparative advantages of universal joint in these traditional exports account for high proportion. High technology content components exports also have certain development, but the vast majority of the core technology is still in the hands of international large parts maker.
(3) at present our country automobile exports mainly has the following four channels
The first channel is the vehicle exports that are attached to the automobile enterprise to enter the international market. Faw liberation, for example, we mainly export to some southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam, the foreign party is usually selected first automobile enterprise models, then we will to engine plant, the last exit. This is the current domestic product export with more methods.
The second channel is the foreign direct procurement in China, that is, through the global purchasing system of multinational auto company to enter the international market. At present, the global automotive companies are constantly reduce the self-making ratio of components, and implement global sourcing strategy, multinational company's global procurement rate of majority of more than 50%.
Article 3 the channel is direct foreign sales production enterprises. After the secondary supplier in the foreign market, the products are exported to foreign countries, are directly related to the guarantee enterprise exports continued to grow.
Article 4 the channel depend on foreign trade companies. Professional foreign trade company engaged in import and export business, familiar with the product and market, have a fixed sales channels, and can timely grasp the dynamics of the international market, at the same time, its organization supply channel is open, so have a lot of advantages.
Second, China's main auto parts export competitiveness
(a) cost advantage
1. Low Labour costs. Low labor cost advantage is important for the formation of the auto parts industry international competitiveness, Japan is the most typical example. The development of auto industry in Japan, and can compete with Europe and the United States in the international market, by the main is the low labor cost advantage, but as Japan's wages rise considerably, low-cost advantage disappear soon, had to transferring a large part of the automobile industry chain to lower-cost countries and regions. Compared with sufficient labor pool in China, the long-term supply, and will continue to provide low-cost Labour. Our country not only have low cost labor, but also with a large team of skilled technical personnel.
China's low labor costs to make our country on labor-intensive parts products competitive advantage is very obvious. Base, bumper, wiring harness, glass, brake pads, clutch, heat, muffler, universal joint, and other products, domestic prices are about 20% lower than the international price. Labor advantage is, as it were, the biggest competitive advantage auto parts export in our country at present.
2. The land cost advantage. The intermediate stage is in the industry development in our country, the land price compared with the developed countries and even southeast Asia other countries are relatively low. In addition, in order to promote industry in the region, especially of advanced industry) like car and related products development, especially to attract multinational companies to the local development, and also around to lower the price of land use policy. Moreover, China's vast parts of the Midwest and northeast old industrial zone is yet to be developed and revive, this also is helpful for our country in the aspect of land elements to keep sustainable low cost advantage.
(2) actively introducing foreign investment
Attached great importance to the introduction of foreign capital in our country, the tax rate and safeguard the rights and interests of foreign investment environment, foreign great reductions. This not only improves the foreign earnings in China, also greatly reduce the investment risk, making a large number of foreign especially large multinational companies are willing to invest in our country.
A can the introduction of foreign capital into the expansion of exports, it remains to be seen whether its export oriented, and it is up to the present in China for auto parts investment of the company. With the change of the life cycle, auto parts has entered the standardization production period, which is the cost of production is crucial at this time. As two factors mentioned above, in manufacturing cost advantages are obvious in our country, so many world famous auto parts enterprises, are setting up several joint venture and wholly owned enterprises, will be in China as its horizontal integration parts production base, to the distribution of global production base of each vehicle spare parts. At the same time, these components into the giant, has made major automobile production companies have set up purchasing center in China, each purchasing center in China's future plan purchase quantity every year there are billions to billions of dollars.
Thus, encourage foreign investment in China's policy of foreign capital to enter for the export of auto parts is a huge boost.
(3) the quick development of auto industry scale advantage
With the increase of per capita national income, China's auto industry are moving in the high speed development stage, auto production higher year by year. Auto parts production in our country is in the midst of the expansion phase, is increasing return to scale. The growth of the domestic auto production, auto parts demand expands year by year, which both inside and outside the economies of scale advantage, reduce the average cost of the products.
From the internal view, mass production can improve the efficiency of production line, implements the specialized division of labor, adopt modern technology and equipment and scientific management methods, so as to improve the production efficiency, save the management cost; In terms of external, mass production can also be in touch with other companies to establish a stable production, technology, improve the bargaining power of negotiation with the raw material supplier, enhance customer to enterprise product trust psychology and so on.
(4) advantage backwardness
This refers to the technical side, a country in the process of industrial development, lagging behind if the status (mainly caused by technical reasons), by imitating a larger room to achieve rapid growth in the developed world. Last in China can introduce the foreign advanced equipment, technology, management, talent, the funds required for the development, advanced development mode, even individual strength and industry competitiveness as soon as possible, surpassing strategy, and implementation of large-scale exports. Japan and South Korea only within 20 or 30 years had achieved nearly hundreds of years, the path of the European and American countries, is a typical example of automobile industry development advantages.
As the prominent manufacturing power in our country, the auto parts under the background of globalization and international division of labor, more has the backwardness advantages conditions. Through cooperation with multinational companies, using the advantage of market power and system innovation, etc, can the backwardness advantage into competitive advantage, at a lower cost and faster access to parts of large-scale exports, and constantly improve the level of technology and management.
(5) tariff advantages
Auto industry in foreign countries is still belongs to the protected key industries. Foreign governments are now more willing to accept the new protectionism: we will vigorously support industry of the country's advantages, promote its exports, to expand the domestic employment and increase of national income. And the tariff is in the hands of a weapon.
Tariff protection for car manufacturing industry, foreign usually adopt a waterfall tariff system, namely for raw materials and parts imported for lower tariffs, and higher in the name of the tax rates of imported cars, making use of imported parts and components of the final product protective efficacy is much bigger than nominal protection ratio shows that the degree of protection. For our parts export, under no discriminatory tariffs, the low tariff policy is undoubtedly a great good.
Third, China auto parts export problems and Suggestions
(a) technology is relatively backward
There is no doubt that on the whole of China's auto parts export competitiveness is cheap labor, exports mainly labor-intensive products, imitation ability. But, our country automobile new product development ability is weak, complete with intellectual property rights of export products rarely, technology content is low. In the production of standardized today, of course, we also can't overestimate the influence of technical factors on the export excessively, after all, exports still basically see the resources endowment of a country. But at the beginning of the new product life cycle stage, the main products of export factor is technology, has the technical superiority, has mastered the export of the initiative; Otherwise, you will have to wait until the "new" entered the stage of standardization production technology products, we can with the advantage of cheap labor for production and export. With the speeding up of the auto update speed, standardized production time share of the life cycle are also shrinking, if we don't will focus on technical progress of development, belong to our time will be shorter.
Therefore, how to realize China's auto parts export core competitiveness from the low-cost labor to the transfer of advanced technology, has become an important subject. This advice is as follows:
1. To pay attention to technology-intensive products production and export subsidies, help them to build competitive advantage. This needs to be further subdivided at present our country has a production capacity of auto parts, in order to determine which products are technology-intensive products, which manufacturers have qualified production capacity.
2. Increase the attracting foreign direct investment. Whether foreign first-class technology, the second technology, through the channels of FDI technology transfer by general technology more advanced than local businesses. And, unlike simple technology licensing, direct investment companies in order to maximize the transferred technology use, often leads to their home countries the transfer of technical personnel, management system and a package, can break through absorbing ability of this new technology in our country.
3. In the short term, the development of OEM can also be used in a certain extent, make up the lack of technical product export in China. Because in this way, the core technology in a certain period of time can be more effective protection, in the name of foreign manufacturer generally will be advanced technology products to OEM production in China.
(2) and price quotation
At present domestic some manufacturers in order to rush to open the international market, often quoted price is much lower than the international average price. It is not wise to: their own profit margin is very low, is not conducive to the long-term development of the enterprise; Both in the eyes of some big companies are not quoted price is lower, the better, some big companies would think that a product without reasonable profit margins of its product quality is likely to be discounted.
More seriously, the production of export products of domestic enterprises mutually interacting, competition, and likely to cause the foreign anti-dumping complaints. Such as fuyao glass from foreign anti-dumping complaints, although in the end is China won, but the occurrence of this problem must has drawn great attention of Chinese enterprises, otherwise it will bring great trouble.
To solve this problem, calls for the joint efforts of various forces. First of all, the domestic manufacturer in the foreign offer, you must first master the international market, to avoid disorderly quotation of adverse consequences. Second, the industry association should also organize export enterprise price self-discipline, against the interacting, export, vicious competition. Once appear, the anti-dumping complaints against China's auto parts industry, automobile industry departments should organize enterprises vigorously.
(3) the sunk cost problem
Sunk cost refers to the early already, if the contract or cancel will not be able to pay the cost of engineering. Foreign buyers purchasing parts often bring auto parts drawings, this would require the interested exporters in China with the first into a fee, including mold development, etc. Of course, if the purchaser will not choose the components company, lost the sunk cost also is very normal. But domestic parts enterprises; for the fear of the mold fee and always would like to sign a contract to open the mould first. Because do not have already finished product products, buyers can't compare, also feel our lack of sincerity of cooperation, will most likely not cooperation with us.
Because of this, our parts enterprises should believe their strength, and boldly upfront investment, making mould, finish the production in advance. This can give a person a kind of sincere feeling, increases the chances of successful cooperation.
(4) the order problem
At present, China's auto parts export orders mainly has two kinds: one kind is the after-sale market orders, mainly to meet the needs of the automotive after-sales maintenance services and order; Is another kind of OEM orders, also is the name of the auto parts producers (importer) does not directly on the production of products, but use their mastery of core technology, the key is responsible for the design and development, control sales channel, specific processing tasks to the original equipment manufacturer.
Although China's export growth faster, but most of these companies do is after-sale market orders, more than about 85% of the Chinese parts exports. This order business belong to the pure international export trade type, low barriers to entry, time is fast. Compared to the OEM orders, this order is not stable, also can't learn the advanced technology.
Therefore, how to seize the OEM, is the enterprise's long-term export of Chinese parts of long-term plan. This not only requires our country export enterprise actively strive for OEM orders, more want to learn and adapt to OEM operation process.
(5) counterfeit and trade barriers
The motor vehicles and equipment manufacturers association (MEMA) to a digital display, counterfeit auto parts of the world's annual output value of $12 billion, much of this comes from China, India, South Korea. In more and more auto parts field, such as brake pads, windshield, etc., appeared likely to pose a threat to consumer safety of counterfeit goods. As a result, China mechanical and electrical products import and export chamber of commerce issued a warning, after textiles, TV, semiconductor chips, China is on the rise of the auto parts industry may face barriers to trade from the United States.




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